Basic requirements for maintenance of electrical equipment of CNC machine tools and diagnostic steps for electrical equipment faults
To check the problems in time when the electrical equipment of the machine tool fails, first of all, the maintenance personnel are required to fully grasp the theoretical knowledge of electrical equipment. For maintenance electricians, to find out the operation problems of machine tools, it is necessary to have a more sufficient and comprehensive theoretical basis than ordinary workers. Maintenance work is a kind of mental work to a certain extent. Most of the time is spent on thinking and troubleshooting, but the maintenance work after the fault is found is easier.
Diagnosis steps of machine tool electrical equipment failure:
(1) Diagnostic steps for electrical equipment faults
When the electrical equipment of the machine tool fails, the maintenance personnel should not rush to start the fault inspection, but should do the investigation work first. First of all, investigate the operating conditions of the machine tool before the failure and the specific phenomena of the failure, such as the time when the failure occurred (before and after driving or during operation), the running action of the machine tool when the failure occurred, and what operation may have caused the machine failure. And whether there is a precedent for similar failures, etc.; after the investigation is sufficient, some basic components of the electrical equipment should be initially checked, such as whether the fuse is blown, whether the wire is intact, whether the motor is running normally, etc.; then maintenance personnel begin to conduct circuit analysis , The circuit analysis should be carried out according to the circuit schematic diagram of the electrical equipment, first make a preliminary judgment on the faulty part, and then gradually narrow the scope. When performing a power failure inspection, because the machine tool may have electrical faults such as short circuit, the power failure inspection should not just turn off the machine tool start switch, but completely disconnect the machine tool’s main power supply, and then check the fault location according to the preliminary results of the circuit analysis.
(2) Classification of electrical equipment failures
The faults of machine tool electrical equipment can be divided into two categories: natural equipment faults and man-made faults. During the normal operation of the machine tool, the equipment components in the machine tool are often worn, aged and failed due to inevitable mechanical vibration, current leakage or thermal effects of various mechanical and electrical equipment operation.
It is particularly important to note that the power-on inspection must be completed after the power-off inspection is completed, and there is no circuit and power grounding faults. , it can only be carried out after the motor of the machine tool is separated from the transmission part.
(3) Commonly used diagnostic tools and diagnostic methods
In the event of a circuit breakage fault, the most commonly used diagnostic method is the electric test pen diagnosis method, that is, each suspected fault point is tested by the electric test pen, and the point where the electric test pen does not light up is the open circuit; The inspection is generally carried out by a multi-meter, and the fault location can be preliminary checked by measuring the AC and DC voltage, current and resistance value of each component with the multi-meter.
The multi-meter diagnosis method can be divided into step measurement method and subsection measurement method. The former is to check the voltage fault by reducing the range part by part, which is similar to the upper ladder, so it is called the step measurement, while the latter checks the voltage fault part by part. Therefore, it is called segmental measurement; the other method is called short-circuit method, which refers to short-circuiting the suspected open circuit problem by short-circuiting a good wire during the troubleshooting process. If the circuit is connected after short-circuiting, It means that there is an open circuit there, but this method cannot detect circuit problems with multiple open circuits.
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