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Brief introduction of four-axis machining center

Machining center: usually refers to a CNC milling machine with a tool magazine (CNC milling machine). CNC milling machine is an automatic processing equipment developed on the basis of general milling machines. The processing technology of the two is basically the same, and the structure is somewhat similar. CNC milling machines are divided into two categories: without tool magazine and with tool magazine.

Four-axis: Generally, when the workpiece is not positioned in space, there are six degrees of freedom, X, Y, Z three linear displacement degrees of freedom and the corresponding A, B, C three degrees of freedom of rotational displacement. Usually, what we call a three-axis machining center is to process objects through the three linear axes of X, Y, and Z. The four-axis is the addition of the A rotation axis on the basis of the three-axis, that is, the object is processed on the four displacement degrees of freedom of X, Y, Z, and A.

1. Machining centers are often divided into vertical machining centers and horizontal machining centers according to the state of the main shaft in space. The main shaft of the machining center in the vertical state in the space is called the vertical machining center, and the main shaft is in the horizontal state in the space. It is a horizontal machining center. The spindle can be converted vertically and horizontally, called a vertical-horizontal machining center or a five-sided machining center, also called a compound machining center.

2. According to the number of motion coordinates of the machining center and the number of coordinates controlled at the same time: there are three axes and two linkages, three axes and three linkages, four axes and three linkages, five axes and four linkages, and six axes and five linkages. Three-axis and four-axis refer to the number of motion coordinates of the machining center. Linkage means that the control system can control the number of motion coordinates at the same time, so as to realize the position and speed control of the tool relative to the workpiece.

3. According to the number and function of the workbenches: there are single-workbench machining centers, double-workbench machining centers, and multi-workbench machining centers.

4. According to the machining accuracy: there are ordinary machining centers and high-precision machining centers. Ordinary machining center, the resolution is 1μm, the maximum feed speed is 15-25m/min, and the positioning accuracy is about l0μm. High-precision machining center with a resolution of 0.1μm, a maximum feed speed of 15-100m/min, and a positioning accuracy of about 2μm. The ones between 2~l0μm are more than ±5μm, which can be called precision level.


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