The lubrication method of the machine tool and the choice of lubricating grease are determined according to the structure of the machine tool, the degree of automation, the working conditions of the machine tool and the comprehensive measurement of the precision requirements. The machine tool lubrication should be avoided while meeting the requirements of reducing wear and consumption. Temperature rise and vibration. As a complex and precise machine, the machine tool will use a variety of transmission devices. According to the type of equipment, working environment and the required precision requirements, the viscosity, oil oxidation resistance, extreme pressure resistance and other related properties of the lubricating oil are required. All have different requirements.
Lubrication method requirements
1. The lubrication points of the machine tool are many and complicated, and many machine tools are lubricated at the same time, so automatic lubrication, also called forced circulation lubrication, is often used to save manpower and ensure reliable lubrication. 2. Most of the machine tools rely on hydraulic transmission. In order to simplify the lubrication system, many machine tools share the hydraulic and lubrication systems. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the requirements of each lubrication point for lubrication while ensuring the normal operation of the hydraulic system. Under the premise of considering the operating cost, choose the lubricating oil (grease) with high viscosity index, good anti-wear and anti-oxidation properties as much as possible. 3. The lubrication of the guide rails and main bearings of single-machine large-scale machine tools usually adopts gravity refueling (drip oil, oil core) lubrication. With this lubrication method, the fluidity of the lubricating oil must be considered to ensure that the lubricating oil can automatically flow into the friction pair. 4. Large-scale machine tools have many gear transmissions, sliding and rolling bearings. In particular, universal grinders have very complicated transmission devices. The power loss due to friction can reach 30-40%. Therefore, proper viscosity and good anti-wear and lubricity must be considered when selecting lubricating oil, so as to minimize friction loss. To save power consumption. 5. Most of the roughing machine tools work intermittently, so impact load is generated and boundary lubrication is accompanied, so appropriate annual, good lubrication performance and extreme pressure resistance must be considered. 6. Precision machine tools have very strict requirements on the temperature rise of lubricating oil, which generally cannot exceed room temperature 2-5°C. Therefore, careful calculation and design of oil viscosity, lubrication method and tank capacity must be done. 7. Poor sealing of the machine tool lubrication system, hydraulic system and each friction pair will cause metal wear debris and abrasive particles in the processing process to enter the lubrication system, which may not only block the oil circuit and cause wear, but also accelerate the deterioration of the oil. Therefore, attention to system sealing is necessary! 8. For cooling and lubricating tools and processing workpieces on metal cutting and grinding machine tools, most of the emulsions and the sodium triphosphate aqueous solution used on the grinder may enter the lubricating oil to promote the deterioration and emulsification of the oil. Therefore, the demulsibility, water resistance, rust and corrosion resistance of the oil must be considered when choosing lubricants. 9. Machine tool guide rail is the key and difficult point of the machine tool lubrication. The motion of the guide rail is repetitive, and the speed and load change greatly, which is prone to crawling, which reduces the processing accuracy and even causes the machine tool to be scrapped. Therefore, the appropriate viscosity and good anti-climbing lubricating oil should be considered when choosing lubricating oil early.
The lubrication of machine tools includes the lubrication of bearings, gears, guides and tops; machine lubricants include: hydraulic oil, hydraulic guide oil and lubricating oil (grease). Different types of machine tools and different working conditions have different performances of lubricants. Claim:
1) Lubrication of sliding bearing: sliding bearing is a commonly used transmission method. Lubricating oil must not only play a role in lubrication but also play a role in cooling. Therefore, it is necessary to use low-viscosity lubricating oil with good lubrication performance and good Its anti-oxidation, anti-wear, anti-rust and anti-foam properties. For the precision sliding bearing used in the grinding stone spindle of the precision grinder, because the bearing clearance is very small (1 micron) and the speed is very high (30000r/min or more), the viscosity should be very small, and the viscosity of the anti-wear oil is 2.0mm2 (40℃) Lubricating oil.
2) Lubrication of rolling bearings: Rolling bearings on machine tools have the advantages of small friction coefficient and quiet operation. Therefore, rolling bearings have been widely used on machine tools. When the inner diameter is 25mm and the speed is below 30000r/min, high-speed grease can be sealed. When it exceeds 30000r/min, use forced lubrication or spray lubrication. It should be noted that, except for the special cases of large and rough rolling bearings, grease containing solid lubricants is generally not allowed.
The impact and vibration of the gears of the machine tool are not large, and the load is small, so it is generally not necessary to use lubricating oil containing extreme pressure additives. What needs attention is how to prevent the thermal deformation of the spindle box. For the gears of stamping or shearing machine tools with large impact loads, gear oils containing anti-wear agents should be used, and gear oils used for circulating lubrication or oil bath lubrication, in addition to consideration Oxidation resistance, but also anti-corrosion, anti-wear, anti-corrosion and anti-foaming properties should be taken into consideration. Choose suitable gear oil and suitable viscosity according to the type of gear.
Guide rail lubrication:
The load and speed of the guide rail vary greatly. Generally, the load on the guide rail surface is 3-8N/cm2. However, due to the frequent repeated movement of the guide rail, it is easy to produce boundary lubrication, or even semi-dry lubrication, which can cause crawling, except for machine tool design and materials. Poor lubrication is the main cause of crawling. In order to overcome the crawling phenomenon, in addition to using fluorine-based resin guide rail veneer, in terms of improving lubrication, mainly use lubricating oil containing anti-climbing agent, guide rail lubrication generally chooses the guide rail oil with viscosity 32, 68, 100, 150, Spanish eagle rail oil The BESLUXLUDER series (32, 46, 68, 100, 150, 220) conform to the ISO6743/4 standard, L-HG level.
Four machine tool top is a special bearing. The fixed center load is not large, and the high-speed machine tools mostly use the rotating center, which has a large complex load, so they are all lubricated by enclosed grease.
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