Turning Lathe refers to a machine tool whose main movement is the rotation of the work-piece, and the movement of the turning tool is the feed movement to process the rotating surface. It can be used to process various rotary forming surfaces, such as: internal and external cylindrical surfaces, internal and external conical surfaces, internal and external threads, end surfaces, grooves, knurling, etc. It is the most widely used metal cutting machine tool with the longest production history and the most variety. There are many types of lathes. According to their use, the structure can be divided into: instrument lathe, horizontal lathe, single-spindle automatic lathe, multi-spindle automatic and semi-automatic lathe, turret lathe, vertical lathe, multi-tool semi-automatic lathe, specialized lathe Wait. In recent years, computer technology has been widely used in the machine tool manufacturing industry, followed by the emergence of mechatronics products such as CNC lathes and turning machining centers.
Milling machine refers to a machine tool that mainly uses milling cutters to process various surfaces on a work-piece. Usually the rotation of the milling cutter is the main movement, and the movement of the work-piece (and) the milling cutter is the feed movement. It can process planes, grooves, various curved surfaces, gears, etc. There are many types of milling machines. According to their structure, they mainly include:
(1) Desktop milling machine: a small milling machine used for milling small parts such as instruments and meters.
(2) Cantilever milling machine: a milling machine with a milling head mounted on a cantilever. The bed is arranged horizontally. The cantilever can usually move vertically along the column guide rail on one side of the bed, and the milling head moves along the cantilever guide rail.
(3) Ram type milling machine: a milling machine with a spindle mounted on a ram, the bed is arranged horizontally, the ram can move horizontally along the slide rail, and the saddle can move vertically along the column rail.
(4) Gantry milling machine: a milling machine in which the bed is arranged horizontally, and the columns and connecting beams on both sides constitute the gantry. The milling head is installed on the beam and column, and can move along the guide rail. Generally, the beam can move vertically along the column guide rail, and the worktable can move longitudinally along the bed guide rail. Used for processing large parts.
(5) Plane milling machine: a milling machine used for milling planes and forming surfaces. The bed is arranged horizontally. Usually the worktable moves longitudinally along the bed guide rail, and the spindle can move axially. It has a simple structure and high production efficiency.
(6) Profiling milling machine: a milling machine for profiling work-pieces. Generally used for processing complex shape work-pieces.
(7) Elevating table milling machine: a milling machine with an elevating table that can move vertically along the bed guide rail. The worktable and sliding saddle usually installed on the elevating table can move longitudinally and laterally, respectively.
(8) Rocker arm milling machine: The rocker arm is mounted on the top of the bed, the milling head is mounted on one end of the rocker arm, the rocker arm can rotate and move in the horizontal plane, and the milling head can rotate a certain angle on the end face of the rocker arm.
(9) Bed-type milling machine: The worktable cannot be raised and lowered, and can be moved longitudinally along the bed guide rail, and the milling head or column can be moved vertically.
(10) Special milling machine: for example, tool milling machine: a milling machine used for milling tool molds, with high machining accuracy and complex machining shapes.
Planer refers to a machine tool that uses a planer to process the surface of a work-piece. The tool and the work-piece make relative linear motion for processing, which is mainly used for processing various planes and grooves, and can also be used for processing of linear forming surfaces. According to its structure, it can be divided into the following types:
(1) Cantilever planer: a planer with a single column and a cantilever. The worktable reciprocates longitudinally along the bed rail. The vertical tool post can move horizontally along the cantilever rail and the side tool post can move vertically along the column rail.
(2) Gantry planer: a planer with double columns and beams. The worktable reciprocates longitudinally along the guide rails of the bed. The columns and beams are respectively equipped with a movable side tool post and a vertical tool post.
(3) Bullhead planer: a planer in which the planer is installed on the carriage of the ram for longitudinal reciprocating motion. Usually the worktable is moved horizontally or vertically intermittently.
(4) Slotting machine (vertical planer): This type of machine tool performs reciprocating motion in the vertical plane, and the worktable performs feed motion.
Grinder refers to a machine tool that uses abrasive tools or abrasives to process various surfaces of a work-piece. Generally used for grinding the hardened surface of parts. Generally, the rotation of the grinding tool is the main motion, and the movement of the work-piece or the grinding tool is the feed motion. It has a wide range of applications, high processing accuracy, and small surface roughness Ra. The grinding machine can be divided into more than ten types:
(1) Cylindrical grinder: It is a common basic series, mainly used for grinding cylindrical and conical outer surfaces.
(2) Internal grinder: It is a common basic series, mainly used for grinding cylindrical and conical inner surfaces.
(3) Coordinate grinder: an internal grinder with precise coordinate positioning device.
(4) Centerless grinder: The work-piece is clamped centerlessly, and is generally supported between the guide wheel and the bracket. The guide wheel drives the work-piece to rotate. It is mainly used for grinding cylindrical surfaces.
(5) Surface grinder: A grinder mainly used for grinding the surface of a work-piece.
(6) Abrasive belt grinder: a grinding machine that uses a fast-moving abrasive belt for grinding.
(7) Honing machine: a grinder used for honing various surfaces of the work-piece.
(8) Grinding machine: a grinding machine used to grind the flat or cylindrical inner and outer surfaces of the work-piece.
(9) Guide rail grinder: a grinder mainly used for grinding the guide rail surface of a machine tool.
(10) Tool grinder: a grinder for grinding tools.
(11) Multi-purpose grinder: a grinder that is used to grind cylindrical and conical inner and outer surfaces or planes, and can grind a variety of work-pieces with a follower and accessories.
(12) Special grinding machine: a special machine tool engaged in grinding certain types of parts. According to its processing objects, it can be divided into: spline shaft grinder, crankshaft grinder, cam grinder, gear grinder, thread grinder, curve grinder, etc.
Drilling machine refers to a machine tool that mainly uses a drill to make holes in a work-piece. Usually the rotation of the drill bit is the main movement, and the axial movement of the drill bit is the feed movement. The drilling machine has a simple structure and relatively low processing accuracy. It can drill through holes and blind holes, replace special tools, and can expand, counter-hole, ream or tapping. Drilling machines can be divided into the following types:
(1) Bench-type drilling machine: a small drilling machine with a vertical spindle that can be placed on a workbench.
(2) Vertical drilling machine: a drilling machine in which the spindle box and worktable are arranged on the column, and the spindle is arranged vertically.
(3) Rocker arm drilling machine: The rocker arm can rotate around the column and rise and fall. Usually the headstock can move horizontally on the rocker arm. It is suitable for processing large parts and holes in different orientations.
(4) Milling and drilling machine: The worktable can be moved vertically and horizontally, the drilling axis is arranged vertically, and it can perform milling.
(5) Deep hole drilling machine: A special deep hole drill bit is used to drill the deep hole by rotating the workpiece.
(6) Flat end face center hole drilling machine: a center hole drilling machine that cuts the end face of a shaft and uses a center drill.
(7) Horizontal drilling machine: a drilling machine with a horizontal spindle and a vertically movable spindle box.
Boring machine refers to a machine tool that mainly uses a boring tool to process pre-made holes on the workpiece. Generally, the rotation of the boring tool is the main motion, and the movement of the boring tool or the workpiece is the feed motion. It is mainly used to process high-precision holes or finish machining of multiple holes at one time. In addition, it can also be engaged in the processing of other machining surfaces related to hole finishing.
Divided by structure and processed object
(1) Horizontal boring machine: The boring shaft is arranged horizontally and performs axial feed, the headstock moves vertically along the front column guide rail, and the worktable moves longitudinally or horizontally for boring processing. This kind of machine tool is widely used and relatively economical. It is mainly used for hole processing of box (or bracket) parts and other processing surface processing related to holes.
(2) Coordinate boring machine: A boring machine with precise coordinate positioning device. It is mainly used for boring hole systems with high requirements for size, shape, and especially position accuracy. It can also be used for precision coordinate measurement, template marking, and scale.
(3) Fine boring machine: A boring machine that uses diamond or cemented carbide tools to perform precision boring.
(4) Deep hole boring machine: a boring machine used for boring deep holes.
(5) Floor boring machine: The workpiece is placed on the floor table, and the column moves longitudinally or horizontally along the bed. Used for processing large workpieces.
In addition, there are milling and boring machines that can perform milling, or deep hole drilling and boring machines that can perform drilling.
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