CNC machine tools are basic, complex and strategic materials in modern industry. CNC machine tools (especially high-grade CNC machine tools) have the following characteristics in industry and technology:
(1) technology intensive and iterative accumulation. CNC machine tool is a kind of product that highly integrates multi-disciplinary and multi-professional technologies such as machinery, electrical, hydraulic, control, hardware, software, information, network and sensing into a physical carrier. It is highly technology intensive and needs long-term accumulation and iteration.
(2) process segmentation and variety. It involves different categories and processes such as cutting processing, forming processing and special processing. The process is divided in detail, and there are many product categories and models.
(3) small market volume and low profit. The machine tool industry is often only a few percent of the scale of the end product industry it serves (such as automobile, engineering machinery, aircraft manufacturing, etc.). It provides manufacturing tool products with high requirements for product function and performance, but low profits.
(4) labor intensive and craftsman spirit. Due to the high requirements for motion accuracy and dynamic performance, but the market scale is small, it is difficult to carry out mass automatic production, and a large number of skilled workers with craftsmanship spirit are needed.
(5) capital alienation and hidden monopoly. Although the machine tool industry is generally a fully competitive industry in the world, in the field of high-end CNC machine tools, the first entrants often establish a strong market competitive advantage based on their own technology accumulation, which has the characteristics of hidden monopoly, that is, the market mechanism in this field is partially ineffective. For late developing industrialized countries, investment in high-end CNC machine tool industry is risky, so capital is generally alienated from this field and needs to rely on national financial support and industrial policy preference.
In terms of main development trends in the future, CNC machine tool technology presents the development trend of high performance, multi-function, customization, intelligence and green, namely:
(1) high performance. In the development of CNC machine tools, we have been striving for higher machining accuracy, cutting speed, production efficiency and reliability. In the future, CNC machine tools will realize high-speed and high-precision direct interpolation of complex curves and surfaces and servo control of high dynamic response through further optimized machine structure, advanced control system and efficient mathematical algorithm; Through digital virtual simulation, optimized static and dynamic stiffness design, thermal stability control, on-line dynamic compensation and other technologies, the reliability and accuracy retention are greatly improved.
(2) multifunction. From the combination of different cutting processes (such as turning milling and milling) to the combination of different forming methods (such as the combination or mixture of forming methods such as additive manufacturing, reduced manufacturing and equal material manufacturing), the integration and cooperation of CNC machine tools and robots; From the traditional serial process chain of “cad-cam-cnc” to the one-step machining direction of “CAD + cam + CNC integration” based on 3D solid model; From the networking of “machine machine” interconnection to “human machine object” interconnection and processing big data processing supported by edge / cloud computing.
(3) customization. According to the needs of users, provide customized development in machine tool structure, system configuration, professional programming, cutting tools, in machine measurement, and provide customized services in machining process, cutting parameters, fault diagnosis, operation and maintenance. Modular design, reconfigurable configuration, networked collaboration, software definition manufacturing, mobile manufacturing and other technologies will provide technical support for customization.
(4) intellectualization. The signals and data of machine tool status and machining process are sensed and obtained through sensors and standard communication interfaces. The machining process is learned through transformation processing, modeling analysis and data mining to form information and instructions supporting optimal decision-making, so as to realize the monitoring, prediction and control of machine tool and machining process, and meet the requirements of high-quality, efficient, flexible and adaptive machining“ “Perception, interconnection, learning, decision-making and adaptation” will become the main functional features of intelligent CNC machine tools. Processing big data, industrial IOT, digital twins, edge computing / Cloud Computing and deep learning will help promote the development and progress of intelligent machine tool technology in the future
(5) greening. Technology is oriented to the needs of future sustainable development, with eco-friendly design, lightweight structure, energy-saving and environmental protection manufacturing, optimized energy efficiency management, clean cutting technology, pleasant man-machine interface and green services in the whole product life cycle. On the one hand, intelligent control is the main feature and trend of the recent development of machine tools in the future, which makes the machine tools higher (precision), faster (efficiency), stronger (function) and more economical (green)“ If you want to do a good job, you must first sharpen your tools. “The future industrial development and human civilization progress are still inseparable from the support and promotion of various machine tools (mainly CNC machine tools today). Looking forward to the future, the new round of industrial revolution will bring new challenges and opportunities to the development of CNC machine tools. The integration of advanced manufacturing technology with the new generation of information technology and the new generation of artificial intelligence will also provide technical support for the technological innovation, product upgrading and industrial upgrading of CNC machine tools. CNC machine tools will move towards high performance, multi-function, customization, intelligence and green, And embrace the new technology of quantum computing in the future to provide more powerful, more convenient and more effective manufacturing tools for the new industrial revolution and the progress of human civilization.