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Lathe introduction

Introduction
A lathe is a machine tool that mainly uses a turning tool to turn a rotating workpiece.
Drills, reamers, reamers, taps, dies and knurling tools can also be used on the lathe for corresponding processing.
ANTS Machine is specialized chinese selected high end lathe machines such as turning machine, milling machine, grinding machine and boring machines selling and exporting.

Component
Spindle box: also known as the headstock, its main task is to pass the rotating motion from the main motor through a series of speed change mechanisms to make the spindle obtain the required forward and reverse rotations at different speeds, and at the same time, the spindle box separates part of the power. Transfer the movement to the feed box. The main shaft in the headstock is a key part of the lathe. The smoothness of the spindle running on the bearing directly affects the processing quality of the workpiece. Once the rotation accuracy of the spindle decreases, the use value of the machine tool will decrease.

Feed box: also known as the knife box, the feed box is equipped with a speed changing mechanism for feeding movement. Adjust the speed changing mechanism to obtain the required feed amount or pitch, and transmit the movement to the knife through a smooth rod or a lead screw. Rack for cutting.

Lead screw and smooth rod: used to connect the feed box and the slide box, and transmit the movement and power of the feed box to the slide box, so that the slide box can obtain longitudinal linear motion. The screw is specially set for turning various threads. When turning other surfaces of the workpiece, only the smooth screw is used, and the screw is not used. Students should distinguish the difference between the light screw and the lead screw based on the content of the slide box.
Slide box: It is the control box for the feed movement of the lathe. It is equipped with a mechanism that converts the rotary motion of the light rod and the lead screw into the linear motion of the tool post. The longitudinal and lateral feed motion of the tool post is realized through the light bar transmission. And rapid movement, the tool holder is driven by the lead screw to make a longitudinal linear movement, so as to turn the thread.

Tool holder: There are two layers of skateboards (medium and small skateboards), bed saddle and tool holder body. It is used to install the turning tool and drive the turning tool to move longitudinally, laterally or diagonally.
Tailstock: Installed on the bed rail, and move longitudinally along this rail to adjust its working position. The tailstock is mainly used to install the rear center to support longer workpieces. Drills, reamers, etc. can also be installed for hole processing.

Bed: It is a large basic part of the lathe with high precision guide rails (mountain guide rails and flat guide rails). It is used to support and connect the various parts of the lathe, and ensure that each part has an accurate relative position when working.
Cooling device: The cooling device mainly pressurizes the cutting fluid in the water tank through a cooling water pump and sprays it to the cutting area to reduce the cutting temperature, wash away the chips, and lubricate the processed surface to improve the service life of the tool and the surface processing quality of the workpiece.

Lathe development
At the beginning of the 20th century, a lathe with a gearbox driven by a separate motor appeared. After the First World War, various high-efficiency automatic lathes and specialized lathes developed rapidly due to the needs of the munitions, automobiles and other machinery industries. In order to improve the productivity of small batches of workpieces, lathes with hydraulic profiling devices were promoted in the late 1940s. At the same time, multi-tool lathes were also developed. In the 1950s, program-controlled lathes with punched cards, latch plates and dials were developed. Numerical control technology began to be used in lathes in the 1960s and developed rapidly after the 1970s.

Lathe type
Ordinary lathe
Wide range of processing objects, wide adjustment range of spindle speed and feed rate, capable of processing the inner and outer surfaces, end faces, and inner and outer threads of the workpiece. This lathe is mainly operated manually by workers, with low production efficiency, and is suitable for single-piece, small-batch production and repair workshops.

Turret and rotary lathe:
It has a turret or return tool holder that can hold multiple tools. Workers can use different tools to complete a variety of processes in a single clamping of the workpiece, which is suitable for mass production.

Automatic lathe
Automatically complete the multi-process processing of small and medium-sized workpieces according to a certain procedure, can automatically load and unload, and repeatedly process a batch of the same workpieces, which is suitable for mass and mass production.

Multi-tool semi-automatic lathe
There are single-axis, multi-axis, horizontal and vertical points. The single-axis horizontal layout is similar to that of ordinary lathes, but the two sets of tool holders are mounted on the front and back or up and down of the main shaft respectively for processing discs, rings and shaft workpieces, and its productivity is 3 to 5 times higher than that of ordinary lathes.

Profile lathe: It can imitate the shape and size of the sample plate or sample, and automatically complete the processing cycle of the workpiece (see profiling machine tool). It is suitable for small batch and batch production of workpieces with more complex shapes. The productivity is 10 to 15 times higher than that of ordinary lathes. There are multi-tool holder, multi-axis, chuck type, vertical type and other types.

Vertical lathe:
The spindle is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the workpiece is clamped on a horizontal rotary table, and the tool post moves on the beam or column. It is suitable for processing large and heavy workpieces that are difficult to install on ordinary lathes. It is divided into two categories: single-column and double-column.

Shovel lathe:
While turning, the tool holder periodically reciprocates radially, which is used for forming tooth surfaces of forklift milling cutters, hobs, etc. Usually with a relief grinding attachment, a small grinding wheel driven by a separate electric motor relieving the tooth surface.

Specialized lathe: Lathes for processing specific surfaces of certain types of workpieces, such as crankshaft lathes, camshaft lathes, wheel lathes, axle lathes, roll lathes, and ingot lathes.

Combined lathe:
Mainly used for turning processing, but with some special parts and accessories, it can also be used for boring, milling, drilling, inserting, grinding and other processing. It has the characteristics of “one machine with multiple functions” and is suitable for engineering vehicles, ships or mobile repair stations. Repair work.

Saddle lathe:
The saddle lathe has a sunken bed at the left end of the headstock, which can accommodate parts with large diameters. The shape of the lathe is high at both ends and low in the middle, which resembles a saddle, so it is called a saddle lathe. The saddle lathe is suitable for machining parts with large radial size and small axial size. It is suitable for turning the outer circle, inner hole, end face, grooving and metric, inch, modulus, warp thread of the workpiece, and also for drilling and boring. , Reaming and other processes, especially suitable for single-piece and batch production enterprises. The saddle lathe can process larger diameter workpieces in the saddle groove. The machine tool guide rail is hardened and finely ground, which is convenient and reliable to operate. The lathe has the characteristics of high power, high speed, strong rigidity, high precision and low noise.

Direction of development
The application of CNC technology has not only brought revolutionary changes to the traditional manufacturing industry, and made the manufacturing industry a symbol of industrialization, but with the continuous development of CNC technology and the expansion of application fields, it is important for the national economy and people’s livelihood (IT, automotive , Light industry, medical, etc.) are playing an increasingly important role, because the digitalization of equipment required by these industries has become a major trend in modern development. The current CNC lathes present the following development trends.

1 High speed and high precision
High speed and precision are the eternal goals of machine tool development. With the rapid development of science and technology, the renewal of mechanical and electrical products has accelerated, and the requirements for precision and surface quality of parts processing have become higher and higher. In order to meet the needs of this complex and changeable market, the current machine tools are developing in the direction of high-speed cutting, dry cutting and quasi-dry cutting, and the machining accuracy is constantly improving. On the other hand, the successful application of electric spindles and linear motors, ceramic ball bearings, high-precision large-lead hollow internal cooling, low-temperature high-speed ball screw pairs with strong cooling of ball nuts, and linear guide pairs with ball cages, and other machine tool functional components The market launch also created conditions for the high-speed and precise development of machine tools. The CNC lathe adopts an electric spindle, which eliminates belts, pulleys and gears, greatly reduces the moment of inertia of the main drive, improves the dynamic response speed and working accuracy of the spindle, and completely solves the problem of belt and pulley transmission when the spindle is running at high speed. Vibration and noise issues. The electric spindle structure can make the spindle speed reach more than 10000r/min. The linear motor has high driving speed, good acceleration and deceleration characteristics, superior response characteristics and following accuracy. The linear motor is used as the servo drive, eliminating the intermediate transmission link of the ball screw, eliminating the transmission gap (including backlash), the movement inertia is small, the system rigidity is good, and it can be accurately positioned at high speed, thus greatly improving Servo accuracy. The linear rolling guide pair has zero clearance and very small rolling friction, low wear, negligible heat generation, very good thermal stability, and improves the positioning accuracy and repeat positioning accuracy throughout the entire process. Through the application of linear motor and linear rolling guide pair, the rapid moving speed of the machine tool can be increased from the original 10-20m/min to 60-80m/min, or even as high as 120m/min.

2 High reliability
The reliability of CNC machine tools is a key indicator of the product quality of CNC machine tools. Whether the CNC machine tool can play its high performance, high precision and high efficiency, and obtain good benefits, the key depends on its reliability.

3 CNC lathe design CAD, structural design modularization
With the popularization of computer applications and the development of software technology, CAD technology has been extensively developed. CAD can not only replace the manual completion of tedious drawing work, but more importantly, it can carry out design plan selection and analysis, calculation, prediction and optimization of the static and dynamic characteristics of the large whole machine, and can carry out dynamic simulation and simulation of the working parts of the whole machine. . On the basis of modularization, the three-dimensional geometric model and lifelike colors of the product can be seen in the design stage. The use of CAD can also greatly improve work efficiency and increase the first-time success rate of design, thereby shortening the trial production cycle, reducing design costs, and improving market competitiveness. Through modular design of machine tool components, not only can reduce repetitive labor, but also can quickly respond to the market and shorten the product development and design cycle.

4 Functional composite
The purpose of functional compounding is to further improve the production efficiency of the machine tool and minimize the time used for non-processing assistance. Through the combination of functions, the use range of the machine tool can be expanded, the efficiency can be improved, and the multi-purpose and multi-function of the machine can be realized. That is, a CNC lathe can realize both turning functions and milling processing; or in the case of milling. Grinding can also be achieved on the machine tool. Baoji Machine Tool Plant has successfully developed the CX25Y CNC turning and milling compound center, which has X, Z axis, C axis and Y axis at the same time. Through the C-axis and Y-axis, it is possible to realize plane milling and machining of partial holes and grooves. The machine tool is also equipped with a powerful tool post and counter spindle. The sub-spindle adopts a built-in electric spindle structure, and the rotation speed of the main and sub-spindles can be synchronized directly through the CNC system. The machine tool can complete all machining of the workpiece in one clamping, which greatly improves the efficiency.

5 Intelligent, networked, flexible and integrated
The ANTS CNC machine equipment of the 21st century will be a certain intelligent system. The content of intelligence includes all aspects of the numerical control system: in order to pursue the intelligence of processing efficiency and processing quality, such as adaptive control of the processing process and automatic generation of process parameters; to improve the drive performance and use the intelligence of the connection, Such as feedforward control, adaptive calculation of motor parameters, automatic load identification, automatic selection of models, self-tuning, etc.; simplified programming and simplified operation of intelligence, such as intelligent automatic programming, intelligent man-machine interface, etc.; There are content such as intelligent diagnosis and intelligent monitoring to facilitate system diagnosis and maintenance. Networked numerical control equipment is a hot spot in the development of machine tools in recent years. The networking of CNC equipment will greatly meet the information integration needs of production lines, manufacturing systems, and manufacturing companies, and it is also a basic unit for realizing new manufacturing models, such as agile manufacturing, virtual enterprises, and global manufacturing. The development trend of CNC machine tools to flexible automation systems is: from point (CNC single machine, machining center and CNC compound processing machine tool), line (FMC, FMS, FTL, FML) to surface (independent manufacturing island of workshop, FA), body ( CIMS, distributed network integrated manufacturing system), on the other hand, is developing in the direction of focusing on applicability and economy. Flexible automation technology is the main means for the manufacturing industry to adapt to dynamic market demands and to rapidly update products. It is the mainstream trend of the development of manufacturing industries in various countries and the basic technology in the field of advanced manufacturing. The focus is on the premise of improving the reliability and practicality of the system, aiming at ease of networking and integration, and focusing on strengthening the development and improvement of unit technology. The single CNC machine is developing in the direction of high precision, high speed and high flexibility. CNC machine tools and their constituent flexible manufacturing systems can be easily connected with CAD, CAM, CAPP, MTS, etc., and are developing in the direction of information integration. The network system is developing towards openness, integration and intelligence.

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