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Structure Composition of CNC Lathe

In today’s machining field, CNC lathes have been widely used in various fields. The use of numerical control lathe can avoid problems such as insufficient structural rigidity, poor seismic resistance and large friction resistance of sliding surface. It is also helpful to improve turning efficiency and reduce cost.

There are many kinds of CNC lathes, but they are generally composed of three parts: the lathe body, the CNC device and the servo system.

Part1 : Lathe body
1. Spindle and spindle box
The rotary accuracy of the NC lathe spindle has a great impact on the accuracy of the parts to be processed, and its power, rotary speed, etc. also have a certain impact on the processing efficiency. If the headstock of a CNC lathe is a CNC lathe with stage automatic speed regulation function, the transmission structure of its headstock has been simplified. For the modified CNC lathe with dual functions of manual operation and automatic control processing, the original headstock is basically still being retained.

The guide rail of the CNC lathe guarantees the feeding movement. To a large extent, it will have a certain impact on the rigidity, accuracy and stability of the lathe when feeding at low speed, which is also one of the important factors affecting the quality of parts processing. In addition to the traditional sliding guide rails used by some CNC lathes, plastic guide rails have been widely used by the finalized CNC lathes.

3. Mechanical transmission mechanism
In addition to some gear transmission mechanisms in the headstock, the CNC lathe has made some simplifications on the basis of the original ordinary lathe transmission chain. The change gear box, feed box, slide box and most of their transmission mechanisms are cancelled, while only the longitudinal and transverse feed screw transmission mechanisms are retained, and a gear pair is added between the drive motor and the lead screw to eliminate its side clearance.

Part2 : CNC device
In the field of numerical control machine tools, the numerical control device is the core of the machine tool. It mainly receives the numerical control processing program sent by the input device from the internal memory, compiles it through the circuit or software of the numerical control device, and outputs the control information and instructions after the operation processing, so as to control the work of each part of the machine tool, so that it can move in order.

Part3 : Servo system
The servo system includes two aspects: one is the servo unit, and the other is the driving device.

Servo unit is the link between CNC and lathe. It can amplify the weak signal in CNC device to form the signal of high-power driving device. The servo unit will have pulse type and analog type according to the different received commands.

The drive trim is to program the CNC signal expanded by the servo unit into mechanical motion, drive the lathe through simple connection parts, make the workbench accurately locate the relative motion of the track, and finally process the required products according to the requirements.

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