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CNC milling machine working principle

A brief description of the working principle of the milling machine & CNC milling machine

1. Working principle of milling machine:

Use the screw bearing to convert the rotary motion of the motor into the linear motion of the table in the horizontal plane (X, Y) and the linear motion of the main shaft in the vertical direction (Z). Rotate the hand wheel clockwise and drive the screw to rotate, so that the helical cylindrical gear rotates counterclockwise, and a lead is raised while rotating one circle. The end mill head installed on the main shaft of the milling machine can be turned at a certain angle to act on the parts clamped horizontally on the milling machine table for bevel milling.

Milling methods of milling machines: down milling and up milling
Climb milling is conducive to work piece clamping and high-speed cutting, and improves the surface processing quality; however, climb milling eliminates the gap between the worktable feed screw and the nut, and requires the work piece to be free of hard skin. Up-cut milling helps to stabilize the movement during machining.

Milling machines are mainly used in mold manufacturing. In addition to milling planes, steps, inclined surfaces, grooves, gears, threads, spline shafts and cutting, milling machines can also perform drilling and boring processing and more complex profile processing, with higher efficiency. High planer, widely used in mold making and repair.

2.Working principle of CNC milling machine:

At present, the application of CNC milling machine is very wide, and the digital control system is integrated in the ordinary milling machine, which can carry out the milling process more accurately under the control of the program code.

According to the technical requirements of part shape, size, accuracy and surface roughness, the processing technology is formulated, and the processing parameters are selected. Input the programmed machining program to the controller through manual programming or automatic programming with CAM software. After the controller processes the machining program, it sends commands to the servo device. The servo device sends a control signal to the servo motor. The spindle motor rotates the tool, and the servo motors in X, Y and Z directions control the relative movement of the tool and the work piece according to a certain trajectory, so as to realize the cutting of the work piece.

CNC milling machine is mainly composed of bed, milling head, vertical table, horizontal saddle, lifting table, electrical control system, etc. It can complete basic milling, boring, drilling, tapping and automatic work cycles, and can process various complex cams, templates and mold parts, etc.

The bed of the CNC milling machine is fixed on the base, which is used to install and support the various parts of the machine tool. The vertical worktable and the horizontal slide are installed on the lifting table, and the X, Y, Z coordinate feeding is completed by the driving of the longitudinal feed servo motor, the lateral feed servo motor and the vertical lift feed servo motor. The electrical cabinet is installed behind the bed column, which houses the electrical control part.

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