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Structure and function of ordinary lathe

Ordinary lathes are horizontal lathes that can process multiple types of workpieces such as shafts, disks, rings, etc., and are often used to process the internal and external rotating surfaces, end faces, and various internal and external threads of the workpiece. Corresponding tools and accessories are used. Perform drilling, reaming, tapping, knurling, etc. Ordinary lathes are the most widely used type of lathes, accounting for about 65% of the total number of lathes. They are called horizontal lathes because their main shafts are placed horizontally.

The main components of ordinary lathes are: headstock, feed box, slide box, tool post, tailstock, smooth screw, lead screw and bed.

Spindle box: also known as the headstock, its main task is to pass the rotating motion from the main motor through a series of speed change mechanisms to make the spindle obtain the required forward and reverse rotations at different speeds, and at the same time, the spindle box separates part of the power. Transfer the movement to the feed box. The main spindle of the headstock is the key part of the lathe. The smoothness of the spindle running on the bearing directly affects the processing quality of the workpiece. Once the rotation accuracy of the spindle decreases, the use value of the machine tool will decrease.

Tool holder: The tool holder component is composed of several layers of tool holders. Its function is to clamp the tool and make the tool move in the longitudinal, horizontal or oblique direction.

Feed box: also known as the knife box, the feed box is equipped with a speed changing mechanism for feeding movement. Adjust the speed changing mechanism to obtain the required feed amount or pitch, and transmit the movement to the knife through a smooth rod or a lead screw. Rack for cutting.

Slide box: It is the control box for the feed movement of the lathe. It is equipped with a mechanism that converts the rotary motion of the light rod and the lead screw into the linear motion of the tool post. The longitudinal and lateral feed motion of the tool post is realized through the light bar transmission. And rapid movement, the tool holder is driven by the lead screw to make a longitudinal linear movement, so as to turn the thread.

Lead screw and smooth rod: used to connect the feed box and the slide box, and transmit the movement and power of the feed box to the slide box, so that the slide box can obtain longitudinal linear motion. The screw is specially set for turning various threads. When turning other surfaces of the workpiece, only the smooth screw is used, and the screw is not used.

Tailstock: It is installed as a rear center for positioning support, and can also be installed with drilling tools such as drills and reamers for hole processing.

Bed: The main parts of the lathe are installed on the bed to keep them in an accurate relative position during work.

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