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What does Turnning, Milling, Planing, Grinding and Boring mean in CNC processing?

Processing name Definition

Turning: The turnning process generally means the work-piece is rotating during turning. The tools do the radial or axial movement which forms outer cylindrical object. The machines can processes includes: Turning lathes and boring machines.

Milling: The rotation parts is the cutter head,It processes plane and the keyway etc. Generally the surface is smooth. The tool rotates, the workpiece is fixed, and the tool makes a rotary motion to form an arbitrary shape that is not formed at one time, which is called ‘milling’. The available machine tools include boring machines, milling machines, and high-strength drilling machines.

Planing: The tool moves relative to the work-piece and touches the work-piece, producing iron flakes, and the processed work-piece has obvious striped texture. The geometric shape obtained by reciprocating motion on any machine tool is called ‘planing’. Satisfactory machine tools include planers, slotting machines, and gear shaper , except for special purpose machine tools. For example, sawing machines cannot be classified as ‘planing’.
Grinding: It is a high-speed rotation of the grinding wheel, which quickly passes over the surface of the work-piece. Generally, the feed is only about 0.1mm, and the surface accuracy is higher than that of milling.

Boring: It is generally used to process the inner hole. The work-piece rotates or the tool rotates, and an inner cylindrical object is formed on the work-piece, which is called ‘boring’.

Available machine tools include lathes and boring machines.

Processing accuracy

1. Turning: The turning precision is generally IT8~IT7, and the surface roughness is 1.6~0.8μm.

2. Milling: The machining accuracy of milling can generally reach IT8~IT7, and the surface roughness is 6.3~1.6μm. The machining accuracy during rough milling is IT11~IT13, and the surface roughness is 5~20μm. The machining accuracy of semi-finishing milling is IT8~IT11, and the surface roughness is 2.5~10μm. The machining accuracy during finishing milling is IT16~IT8, and the surface roughness is 0.63~5μm.

3. Boring: The boring accuracy of steel materials can generally reach IT9~IT7. The surface roughness is 2.5~0.16μm. The machining accuracy of precision boring can reach IT7~IT6, and the surface roughness is 0.63~0.08μm.

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Matters need attention

1. When turning a stepped shaft, in order to ensure the rigidity during turning, generally the part with the larger diameter should be turned first, and the part with the smaller diameter should be turned later.

2. When grooving on the shaft work-piece, it should be done before finishing to prevent the work-piece from deforming.

3. When finishing a threaded shaft, generally the unthreaded part should be finished after threading.

4. Before drilling, the end face of the work-piece should be flattened. If necessary, punch the center hole first.

5. When turning (Φ10—Φ20) mm holes, the diameter of the tool holder should be 0.6—0.7 times of the machined hole diameter; when machining holes with a diameter larger than Φ20 mm, the tool holder with the tool head should generally be used.

6. When turning multi-threaded or multi-threaded worms, try cutting after adjusting the gears.

7. When using an automatic lathe, adjust the relative position of the tool and the work-piece according to the adjustment card of the machine tool. After the adjustment is done, test turning is required. The first piece can be processed only after the first piece is qualified. Pay attention to the wear of the tool and the size and surface roughness of the work-piece at any time during the processing.

Lathe machines features

Boring machine: It is mainly used to process large or large circular planes, such as processing a circular counterbore with a diameter of 100mm. If the milling cutter is not so large, a boring cutter must be used.

Lathe: Mainly a machine tool that uses a turning tool to turn a twisted workpiece. Drills, reamers, reamers, taps, dies and knurled objects can also be used on the lathe for corresponding processing.

Wide range of processing objects, wide adjustment range of spindle speed and feed rate, capable of processing front and back profiles, end faces and front and back threads of workpieces. This kind of lathe is mainly manually operated by workers, with low production efficiency, and is suitable for single-piece, small-batch production and repair workshops.

It has a turret or return tool holder that can hold multiple tools. Workers can use different tools to complete a variety of processes in a single clamping of the workpiece, which is suitable for batch production.

There are single-axis, multi-axis, horizontal and vertical points. The single-axis horizontal structure is similar to the conventional lathe, but the two sets of tool holders are separately mounted on the front and back or up and down of the main shaft for processing discs, rings and shaft workpieces, and its production rate is 3 to 5 times higher than that of the conventional lathe.
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Milling machine: Mainly refers to a machine tool that uses a milling cutter to process a variety of work-piece profiles. The main activity of the milling cutter is torsion, and the movement of the work-piece and the milling cutter is the feed activity. It can process planes and grooves, as well as various curved surfaces and gears. The milling machine can be equipped with milling cutters of various specifications and functions.

1. Cylindrical milling cutter: used for processing planes on horizontal milling machines. The cutter teeth are distributed on the circumference of the milling cutter. According to the tooth shape, they are divided into straight teeth and spiral teeth. According to the number of teeth, there are two types: coarse teeth and fine teeth. The helical coarse-tooth milling cutter has fewer teeth, high tooth strength and large chip holding space, which is suitable for rough machining; fine-tooth milling cutters are suitable for finishing.

2. Face milling cutter: used for vertical milling machine, face milling machine or gantry milling machine, upper processing plane, there are cutter teeth on the end face and circumference, and there are coarse and fine teeth. There are 3 types of layouts: whole type, insert type and indexable type.

3. End mill: used for processing grooves and step surfaces, etc. The cutter teeth are on the circumference and end surface, and it is not possible to feed along the axial direction when working. When the end mill has end teeth passing through the core, it can be fed axially (a double-edged end mill is also called a “keyway milling cutter” and can be fed axially).

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