In modern industrial production, the production of medium and small batch parts accounts for an increasing proportion of the number of products, and the complexity and precision requirements of parts are rapidly increasing. Traditional ordinary machine tools have become more and more difficult to meet the requirements of modern production, and CNC machine tools It has the characteristics of high precision, high efficiency, multiple functions in one machine, and can complete complex surface processing. Especially with the rapid development of computer technology and its wide application in CNC systems, the main functions of CNC devices are almost entirely realized by software, and almost all hardware can Universal, which makes it more flexible in processing and more powerful.
The competition in the manufacturing industry has developed from the competition of reducing labor costs and product costs in the early stage, and improving the overall efficiency and quality of enterprises, to the competition of fully satisfying customer requirements and actively developing new products, and will face the renewal cycle of knowledge, technology and products. It is getting shorter and shorter, the batches of products are getting smaller and smaller, and the requirements for quality and performance are higher. At the same time, the society’s awareness of environmental protection and green manufacturing is continuously strengthened. Therefore, agile and advanced
manufacturing technology will become the main means for enterprises to win competition, survive and develop. The combination of computer information technology and manufacturing automation technology is getting closer and closer, and CNC machine tools, which are an important basis for automated flexible production, will account for more and more of the production machine tools.
Status Quo of CNC Flat Grinding and Main CNC Systems
Compared with lathes, milling machines, etc., surface grinders adopt CNC systems later, because of their special requirements for CNC systems. In the past ten years, with the help of CNC technology, operation functions such as continuous dressing of grinding wheels, automatic compensation, automatic grinding wheel exchange, multi-table, automatic transfer and clamping of workpieces on grinding machines have been realized, and numerical control technology has gradually become popular on surface grinding machines. In recent years in Hannover, Tokyo, Chicago, and other large machine tool exhibitions in China, CNC grinders have accounted for the majority of the entire grinder exhibits. For example, Germany’s BLOHM company, ELB company and other famous grinder manufacturers no longer produce ordinary grinders. Japan’s Oka Ben, Nikko and other companies also produce full-function CNC flat grinders in batches. While developing high-end CNC flat grinders, they are actively developing medium and low-grade CNC flat grinders.
A few years ago, the BRILLIANT series two-coordinate CNC forming grinder produced by the German ELB company, its vertical and horizontal axes are CNC axes, and its longitudinal direction is hydraulic control. It is a three-coordinate CNC plane and forming grinder. The bed is made of natural granite with extremely high geometric accuracy. The guide rail is a linear rolling guide, and the mechanical drive has no recoil, so as to ensure a good surface finish of the workpiece; BRILLIANT-FUTURE is the above two A series of improved products, the bed is made of artificial granite, the longitudinal guide is hydrostatic, the toothed belt drive, the vertical and lateral guides are preloaded linear rolling guides, the ball screw drive, the three-axis CNC control AC servo motor, 0.5 Measurement resolution in μm. At the same time, ELB has developed grinding machine products with the latest technology, namely, CAM-MASTER series flexible grinding units based on mechatronics and computer technology, CAD-MASTER series and COMPACT-MASTER series grinding and machining centers, with the most control axes It can reach 24 axes. In addition, due to the comprehensive implementation of modular design, the manufacturing cycle of special grinders is shortened. ELB has also developed a variety of high-efficiency special grinders, such as SFVG100/2 special grinders, which have tiltable grinding heads, continuous dressing, and creep feed. , the oblique plunge grinding function, with eleven CNC control axes, just like a grinding center. British JONES&SHIPMAN company and American AB company developed A-B8600 CNC system for FORMAT5 type CNC flat grinding, the hydraulic valve is controlled by CNC to drive longitudinal adjustable speed movement, ball screw pair for transverse and grinding head feeding, DC servo motor Drive, intermittent grinding wheel dressing, CRT graphic simulation display. At the same time, it can also be equipped with other types of CNC systems to meet the requirements of different users.
At present, with the continuous improvement of semiconductor integration, the newly launched system is getting smaller and smaller in appearance, more and more compact in structure, and has increased functions of remote communication, remote diagnosis, multi-machine networking, etc.; the operation interface is closer to the WINDOWS system , add mouse, remote controller and other operating parts. FANUC mainly launched 18I, 16I, 20I, 21I systems this year, SIEMENS 840D, 810D, 802D are all compact systems. There are also some manufacturers such as the PA8000NT series CNC controller developed by the Taiwan Precision Machinery Research and Development Center, which uses the WINDOWS NC operating system and the NT real-time multiplexing core. The number of read processing can reach 1000 pieces. It has AART (pre-adaptive adjustment technology) and parameter optimization learning function, which can make the following error approach zero. The software processing path filter can reduce the impact of excessive acceleration changes during the cutting process. The resulting mechanical resonance can improve the surface roughness; the servo is flexible, with +, -10V analog servo interface, and also provides the international standard SERCOS digital servo communication interface; PLC programming is designed with ladder diagrams, structural statements, function blocks, instructions Five syntaxes, such as code and flow chart, are convenient for design, communication and maintenance; it has computer remote communication and instant remote maintenance function; the control axis and spindle can be expanded to 64 axes at most, and the I/O points can be expanded to 792/528 points. Pentium processor, high-speed PLC processing speed up to 25K.
In addition to the famous SIEMENS, FANUC and other CNC system professional factories in the world, which have developed and produced many systems suitable for surface or profile grinding, some flat grinding factories themselves have also actively developed CNC systems suitable for their grinding machines.
Siemens’ SINUMERIK 840D system, which has more than 20 servo axes, coordinate continuous travel control, manual data input or input through external computer, remote diagnosis, can change the travel with the reduction of the diameter of the grinding wheel, automatic compensation of the dressing amount of the grinding wheel, Ball screw clearance error compensation, etc.
Siemens 3G system is specially developed for grinding. It is equipped with an operation prompt device for man-machine dialogue. When the axis is inclined, linear and circular interpolation can also be performed. The running cycle that often occurs in grinding, such as The spindle swings, the execution program is interrupted by an external signal, the special preparation functions such as grinding wheel cut-in and grinding wheel dressing are used to compile fixed cycle programs. It is not only possible to use an external measuring device (switch signal), but also to directly control the device for comparison with the final dimensions when a suitable measuring head is connected.
The 8400CNC and 8600CNC CNC series produced by ALLEY-BRANDLY in the United States are suitable for lathes, milling machines and grinding machines. The 8400CNC can control up to 6 servo axes, any 2 axes can perform circular interpolation, and any 3 axes can perform helical interpolation , 6-axis linear interpolation. 8600CNC series can control up to 17 coordinates, including 8 axes involved in interpolation, 8 axes controlled by digit and 1 spindle, with graphic display, extended branch program, display processing time, high-speed program verification, tool life monitoring and other functions.
Japan FANUC company has developed OG high-speed and high-performance CNC system, of which O-GSG is suitable for surface grinders. It can have four different grinding methods according to different shapes of grinding parts. It has the function of grinding wheel axis inclination control function. A complete set of grinding cycles for grinding, fine grinding and non-spark grinding, the position compensation function after the grinding wheel is rolled and trimmed, the control function of the dresser relative to the normal line of the dressed wheel, the compensation function of the arc radius of the outer edge of the dressing roller, and the shape graphics of the grinding wheel Display function and grinding parameter display, etc., the minimum setting unit of the system is 0.1μm, it is a ‘compact’ CNC system, and the price is low.
In addition, there is the UNICON system jointly developed by the German ELB company and the university. Japan’s Okuma Iron Works OSP5000G-G, OSP30-NF and other self-developed plane and form grinding CNC systems, its OSP5000G-G can control up to 9 coordinates, of which 6 coordinates can be linked, with 12-inch color display, man-machine Dialogue programming, automatic determination of cutting coefficient, floppy disk input available, incorporated into FMS system, minimum pulse equivalent, moving equivalent and detection equivalent are all 0.1μm, and the induction synchronizer full closed loop method is also used for flat grinding.
Although some flat grinding factories use the system of the CNC host factory, they develop their own software, which is more suitable for plane and forming grinding. The programming language is used to shape and dress the grinding wheel, and it has the function of graphic auxiliary operation. Japan’s Okamoto Company developed the OPL language for grinding processing on the CNC system hardware of FANUC Company, and so on.
Today’s linear motor, dynamic balance and other technologies and processes are increasingly developed, and the work efficiency of the machine tool has been greatly improved. The application of suitable measurement technology to the development and utilization of the numerical control system and the enhancement of the electrical automatic control function of the machine tool are even more powerful.
The development of domestic CNC flat grinding
my country began to produce CNC surface grinders in the 1980s, and each developer has gone through the development path of self-developed, cooperative development with universities and scientific research units, and direct introduction of mature CNC systems.
The MGK7120 high-precision flat grinder produced by it adopts the POWER MATE-D dual-axis numerical control system of Japanese FANUC company to control the feed of the grinding head, with a minimum feed of 0.1 μm, and has the function of automatically completing the grinding cycle.
MKY7650/101 automatic CNC double-end grinding machine is a technical cooperation product with Italian VIOTTO company. It is controlled by Siemens SIMATIC S5-115U programmable controller and CRT display. The left and right grinding heads of the machine are driven by two-axis DC servo motors. Perform manual adjustment and automatic grinding cycle selection. Equipped with an Italian Malpos E9 measuring system, two measuring heads, one measuring the grinding wheel, which feeds back the wear amount of the grinding wheel to the control system for grinding wheel compensation; the other measuring head measures the ground workpiece and inputs the measurement results into the control system , compensated feed by servo motor; left and right grinding heads are controlled by VIOTTO grating for position measurement, which realizes full closed-loop and fully automatic processing from workpiece loading to grinding.
HZ-050CNC CNC linear rolling guide special grinding machine is a special grinding machine developed for the third scientific and technological key industrial project of Shanghai science and technology combined production key industrial project. It has both surface grinding function and forming grinding function. It adopts the 8400MP CNC system produced by AB Company in the United States. The machine tool has 7 CNC axes, X, Y, Z three grinding head feed axes and U, V, W three The grinding wheel dressing axis is directly controlled by the system, and the other axis Q is the horizontal grinding wheel lateral feed (for grinding plane) through the SLC programmable controller plus the IMC positioning module, and the system I/O port is input to the 8400MP host to control its position. It has automatic processing capabilities such as continuous dressing of the grinding wheel or gap-type grinding wheel dressing and compensation feed during grinding.
HZ-KD2010 six-axis CNC gantry type surface grinder with double grinding heads adopts FANUC-0MC numerical control system. Four CNC axes are used to control the lateral and vertical feed of the two grinding heads respectively, and one PMC axis is used to control the grinding wheel of the surrounding grinding heads. The diamond pen of the dresser is fed, and another PMC axis controls the indexing rotation of the universal grinding head. The system performance is fully utilized, the production cost is reduced, and the cost performance ratio of the machine tool is improved.
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